Microbiology for the Health Sciences

Microbiology for the Health Sciences


Credit Fall 2019
08/26/2019 - 12/15/2019

Course Information

Section 003
Distance Learning
Ana Maria Valle Rivera

Section 003
W 15:00 - 17:50
RRC3 3320.00
Ana Maria Valle Rivera

Office Hours

  • M
    10:30 - 1:30 PM
    RRC 3316
  • W
    1:30 - 2:50 PM
    RRC 3316
  • Th
    12 - 1:20 PM
    RRC 3316
    Other hours by appointment only. Confirm appointment via e-mail 24 hours ahead of time.

Course Requirements

Course Description:  An introduction to the microbial world including the basic characteristics of fungi, algae, bacteria, and viruses. Special emphasis is placed on applications to humans. This course will not count as credit toward the Associate of Science degree in Biology.

Skills Requirements: Reading, writing, and mathematics proficiency as determined by the COMPASS or ASSET test, or by the statewide THEA test, or by providing an official transcript from another college.


Course Prerequisite:

One of the following, with minimum grade of C (or equivalent with lab): BIOL 2404 (Into to A&P), BIOL 2401 (A&P I), BIOL 2304/BIOL 2101 (Human Anatomy), or BIOL 1406 (Cellular and Molecular Biology).


Managing the Prerequisite Course Load:

Many ACC Health Sciences programs require BIOL 2401, BIOL 2402, and BIOL 2420 as prerequisites. Due to the rigorous nature of each of these courses, it is not recommended to take two of them in one semester. The Biology department recommends taking these courses in the following sequence in order to balance the course load:

Semester 1: BIOL 2401 – A&P I 
Semester 2: BIOL 2402 – A&P II
Semester 3: BIOL 2420 – Microbiology for the Health Sciences


Course Rationale: This course provides a survey of microorganisms, their environments, and their interactions with multicellular organisms, especially humans, and it concentrates on the microbes that are pathogenic to humans. The goal of Introduction to Microbiology is to adequately prepare students for the health science programs at ACC.

TRANSFERABILITY: Biol 2420 is designed for students in ACC health science programs and may not transfer to other schools. Instead, you may need Biol 2421 Microbiology. Check with other institutions to make sure this course transfers!


Textbooks and Materials:

1. Required: Microbiology with Diseases by Body System, Fifth Edition by Robert W. Bauman. ISBN:   9780134477206


2. Required: Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application, Fourth Edition by Michael J. Leboffe & Burton E. Pierce.  ISBN:   9781617312502


3. 3” binder for your lab manual and notes

4. Fine point Sharpie pen – any dark color –to remain in the lab throughout the semester

5. Safety eyewear that meets Z87.1 standards (you can purchase this at a home improvement store or at an ACC bookstore) –to remain in the lab throughout the semesteràHave these with you on the first day of class!

6. Closed-toed shoes: No open toed shoes will be allowed in the lab.  This starts on day 1!  You will NOT be allowed in open lab unless you wear closed toed shoes.

7. Blackboard: It's under development, but it will include course materials, including lecture and lab notes, homework assignments, homework answers, your grades, announcements, etc. will be posted on this site. The most up-to-date course information will be posted on Blackboard. Students may access Blackboard by selecting the “Blackboard Login” link on ACC’s homepage at You will need to activate your ACC eID before you can log into Blackboard (see ACC’s homepage for a link).

I use Blackboard EXTENSIVELY - All course materials, including lecture and lab notes, homework assignments, your grades, announcements, etc. will be posted on this site. The most up-to-date course information will be posted on Blackboard, not on my website. Check this site on a daily basis. Posted Blackboard announcements will also be sent out to students as an email (see ACC e-mail below).

8. e-mail: All College e-mail communication to students will be sent solely to the student’s ACCmail account, with the expectation that such communications will be read in a timely fashion. ACC will send important information and will notify you of any college related emergencies using this account.  Students should only expect to receive email communication from their instructor using this account.  Likewise, students should use their ACCmail account when communicating with instructors and staff.  Instructions for activating an ACCmail account can be found at

I recommend you check your ACC e-mail on a daily basis.

Grading system 

Exam and homework due dates are posted in the lecture schedule. 

Due to ACC policies concerning the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), instructors cannot post grades or call or e-mail students with information about their grades. You can post grades on their Blackboard site for the class. In Blackboard, a student can only see his/her own grade.

Grade Scale:  

 1000 - 895 = A

  894 – 795 = B

  794 – 695 = C

  694 – 595 = D

          < 595 = F

Evaluation: Lecture points (total of 660 possible) + Lab points (total of 340 possible) = course grade


5 Lecture exams                                               500 (see class schedule for dates)

Homework                                                         80 (see class schedule for due dates)

(HW #1-5 are 10 points each, HW #6 is 30 points)                              

Case Studies                                                      30 (see class schedule for dates- 6 points each)

Reading Quizzes                                               50 (posted and graded through BB) (Reading quizzes are worth 5 points each-there may be more than 10 quizzes and if there are more than 10 then only the top 10 quizzes will count towards your grade)


4 Practical examinations                                176 (see lab schedule for dates and each lab exam is worth 44 points)

Bacterial unknowns                                        90 (Unknown #1: 20 points, Unknown #2: 70 points, see lab schedule for start and due dates)

Pre-Lab Reading Quizzes                              50(Reading quizzes are worth 5 points each-there may be more than 10 quizzes and if there are more than 10 then only the top 10 quizzes will count towards your grade)

Lab Performance                                             24

Total Points                                                        1000

Curves/Extra Credit: Grades are NOT curved! No exam retakes are given under any circumstances. Extra credit will be provided at the instructor’s discretion (see the schedule for due dates).

Determining the Final Grade: Students often have an inaccurate understanding of the point system. Consider the following example: A student has earned a total number of 880 points and think they are only 2 points away from an A. Unfortunately they are considering the 100 point system instead of the 1000 point system (88 out of 100 instead of 880 out of 1000). This student is actually 15 points away from an A, as 895 points are needed to earn an A. Please keep this in mind when you are evaluating your grade at the end of the semester.

Posting/Discussing Grades: Grades will be posted on Blackboard as soon grading is completed. I cannot call or email students concerning their grades.

Exam Format: Lecture exams may include multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank and short answer questions. You will be informed if scantrons are needed. Lecture exams will be taken at the RRC and HLC Testing Centers ONLY.  No exam retakes are given under any circumstances.  Please plan ahead and give yourself plenty of time to take each lecture test.


Practical Format: All lab practical tests will be a fill in the blank format based on pictures with some technique component. Lab exams are given during lab times indicated on the lab schedule and must be taken when they are scheduled. If you are more than 15 minutes late, you will not be able to take the exam.


Laboratory Performance: You are expected to come to lab prepared and ready to work.  You will receive up to 24 points for the following: lab attendance, coming prepared, participating in the lab work, doing the lab work without rushing through it, cleaning your lab waste properly and cooperating with others.

Homework, case studies and Extra Credit Format: Students answer questions on the material in each unit which may include multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank, graphing and short answer questions.  Homework and extra credit are due at the due date in Blackboard only.

Reading Quiz Format: Students answer questions on the material in each unit which may include multiple choice, true/false and matching.

Unknowns: Unknowns will be discussed in lab prior to the beginning of each project.   Lab technique, organization of project, and test selection while identifying an unknown bacterial culture will be evaluated during these projects.  These are due in lab.

Resolve all grading questions within one week after the grades have been posted.  After one week, the score will stand.

Optional Comprehensive Final Exam: A comprehensive final exam will be offered. Students must declare their intentions to take the exam, in writing, one week prior to the final examination date.


Exam and grading policies

•     Exams will be graded and returned within a week from when they are given.

•     Graded exams must be given back to me at the end of the class period when they are returned.  If an exam is not returned, you will receive a zero for it. 

•     All scores will be posted on Blackboard within a week from when exams or assignments are due.  This allows you to calculate your current grade at any time and to check that my records are correct. 

•     Resolve all grading questions within one week from when an exam or assignment has been returned to you.  After one week, the score will stand. 

Attendance/ Participation

  • Regular and punctual  laboratory attendance is expected of all students.
  • Biology requires your participation because you learn better when you participate and also because we will be learning about things that directly impact your life and how you think about our world. Besides, it’s much more fun when you’re part of the discovery! Be prepared for lab by reading lecture notes, textbook, and lab activities before coming to class.
  • You should expect to spend a minimum of 3 hours outside of class for every hour spent in class if you want a grade of C. More time may be needed to achieve a higher grade. Of course study time depends on your previous courses and experience and how you study.
  • If you feel you cannot meet attendance expectations you should withdraw from this course now and take another section.  Your performance depends on your attendance. 
  • If you miss 3 labs, you will be dropped from the class.

Missed or Late Work


Late Work: Late work will not be accepted. No exceptions.

Make-up Exams:  Students are not allowed make-up exams. If an exam is missed then the student can take the comprehensive final to replace the missed exam grade. The final exam grade can be substituted for no more than one missed exam.

Case students: These cannot be made up. No exceptions.

Labs: You cannot make up every lab in open lab.  Please contact your instructor to verify if you can try to perform a missed lab during open lab.

Lab Practicals: Lab practicals cannot be made up. An optional assignment will be offered at the end of the semester that will substitute for ONLY one missed practical test grade. 

Withdrawals: It is the responsibility of each student to ensure that his or her name is removed from the roll should he or she decide to withdraw from the class. The instructor does, however, reserve the right to drop a student should he or she feel it is necessary. If a student decides to withdraw, he or she should also verify that the withdrawal is submitted before the Final Withdrawal Date. The student is also strongly encouraged to retain their copy of the withdrawal form for their records.

Students who enroll for the third or subsequent time in a course taken since Fall 2002, may be charged a higher tuition rate for that course.

State law permits students to withdraw from no more than six courses during their entire undergraduate career at Texas public colleges or universities. With certain exceptions, all course withdrawals automatically count towards this limit. Details regarding this policy can be found in the ACC college catalog.

Students are expected to attend classes in order to progress satisfactorily toward completion of course objectives.  The student is responsible for all materials, activities, assignments, or announcements covered in class, regardless of your reason for being absent.   If you do miss a class, get lecture notes from someone in the class and get handouts and assignments from me. If you feel you cannot meet attendance expectations you should withdraw from this course now and take another section.  Your performance depends on your attendance. Any student who in any way interferes with or disrupts the educational process, or who verbally or physically threatens or harasses another student, an ACC employee, or a visitor will not be allowed to continue in the course.  This description includes students who refuse to follow safety procedures as well as students who commit unlawful acts.

The last to withdraw without receiving a ‘W’ is September 11, 2019. The last day to withdraw is November 21, 2019.

You are responsible for withdrawing yourself from the course if you don’t intend to or cannot complete the course requirements.   If you forget to withdraw, you will receive a grade of “F” on your transcript.    Keep your copy of the withdrawal form. 

Keep your copy of the withdrawal form.

You should be aware of Texas law before you decide to drop:

Rule of Three: Students are charged a higher tuition rate for courses they repeat for the third or more time.  This is generally referred to as the “Rule of Three”.   Information about this rule is located at:

Six Drop Rule: Texas Education Code Section 51.907 mandates that all students who enroll as first time freshmen at a Texas public institution of higher education in Fall 2007 or later may not drop more than six courses during their academic career.  Information about this rule is located at:

Reinstatement: In order to be reinstated in the class, the student must have been enrolled in the course on the state reporting date, as demonstrated by the twelfth-day class roll, must have been withdrawn from the course in error, must show evidence of being capable of passing the course within the time remaining in the semester, and the instructor must have documentation that the student is eligible to be reinstated in the course.

Incompletes: An instructor may award a grade of “I” (Incomplete) if a student was unable to complete all of the objectives for the passing grade in a course. An incomplete grade cannot be carried beyond the established date in the following semester. The completion date is determined by the instructor but may not be later than the final deadline for withdrawal in the subsequent semester.

Incomplete grades will be given only when extenuating circumstances have prevented the student from completing the course. In order to be considered for an "I", a student must have successfully completed at least 50% of the class work and have a minimum of three exams with an average of 70% or better. The incomplete must be completed by approximately four weeks before the end of the succeeding semester, including the summer term. If not completed by that time, the incomplete grade becomes an F.


Statement on Student Discipline: Classroom behavior should support and enhance learning. Behavior that disrupts the learning process will be dealt with appropriately, which may include having the student leave class for the rest of that day. In serious cases, disruptive behavior may lead to a student being withdrawn from the class. ACC's policy on student discipline can be found on the ACC website at


ACC Safety and Lab Safety Statements: Austin Community College is committed to providing a safe and healthy environment for study and work. You are expected to learn and comply with ACC environmental, health and safety procedures and agree to follow ACC safety policies. Additional information on these can be found at Because some health and safety circumstances are beyond our control, we ask that you become familiar with the Emergency Procedures poster and Campus Safety Plan map in each classroom. Additional information about emergency procedures and how to sign up for ACC Emergency Alerts to be notified in the event of a serious emergency can be found at

Please note, you are expected to conduct yourself professionally with respect and courtesy to all. Anyone who thoughtlessly or intentionally jeopardizes the health or safety of another individual will be dismissed from the day’s activity, may be withdrawn from the class, and/or barred from attending future activities.

You will receive safety training in your lab room prior to working with any hazards such as chemicals or microbes. If you miss in-class safety training and do not make it up by the end of the week you will be dropped from the class and not reinstated. If you show up on lab days without appropriate safety eyewear and shoes you will not be able to participate in lab or remain in the room during class.

Lab Policies

SOME GOOD ADVICE: The lab is an important & integral part of this course. I will give you specific instructions at the beginning of lab, but then you are encouraged to THINK for yourself, DO for yourself, TAKE initiative, & be RESPONSIBLE for your actions. Planning ahead, reading lab objectives before class, and working efficiently will pay great dividends. If you are not a “multi-tasker,” you will be by the end of this course! This is a skill absolutely required in the allied health field. Many of lab activities are collaborative - cooperate & do your share of the work! Be prepared! Your unpreparedness causes you stress, making you a safety hazard & an annoyance to your lab group. Speak up if you don’t understand work that was done by other lab group members – Passivity is not allowed! Most importantly - HAVE FUN!!


  • Attendance is mandatory.
  • Lab will begin on time. If you are late, you will miss important announcements/instructions! You will not be allowed to perform the lab if you are more than 10 minutes late at the beginning of lab.  Late students are a safety hazard to other students in the lab!
  • If you know in advance you are going to be absent, ask your lab partner to save the materials used that day.
  • I will ask you to leave the classroom if I discover you texting during lab.
  • If you violate a safety policy, I will withdraw you from the class as per department policy. 

Official Biology Department Policy Concerning Student Use of Organisms in the Classroom and Laboratory: Most ACC biology classes, particularly those with laboratory components, use actual organisms during instruction in addition to images and models. ACC students generally are preparing for real-world careers requiring workers with hands-on experience. These careers include health care, veterinary work, horticultural and agricultural work. Other students plan to transfer to four-year colleges and will be participating in biological research where hands-on experience is equally important.

Organisms used at ACC are fundamental in biology instruction and they are utilized to teach specific skills and knowledge. Their condition and usage varies from course to course. Students will be expected to actively participate in these activities. Students with particular concerns in this matter should consult with their instructor and/or departmental officials before enrolling in a course so that they can know what will be required of them.

Some organisms are observed alive while others are dead and preserved in various ways. Student manipulation of organisms ranges from culturing living organisms to dissecting preserved ones. Some examples include, but are not limited to: bacterial culturing for microbiology courses; cat, pig or rat dissection for anatomy courses; skeleton and pelt examination for field biology; and use of frogs in physiology experiments.

Course Subjects

Fall 2019 Lecture Schedule


WEEK    LECTURE TOPIC                                                                                                 CHAPTER

1              Orientation and Introduction to microbes lecture                             1                             

History of Microbiology, Microscopy and Staining lecture              1, 4

Orientation document due 8/30/2019 at 9 AM  

2              Microbial Classification lecture                                                                  4             

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells                lecture                                                 3

Extra Credit assignment #1 (5 points) due in BB on 9/6/19 at 9 AM

à It is a practice reading quiz.  This is a reminder to look for reading quizzes in BB.

Extra Credit assignment #2 (5 points) due in BB on 9/6/19 at 9 AM

à It is a practice reading quiz.  This is a reminder to look for reading quizzes in BB.

Ch. 4 Reading Quiz due on 9/6/19 at 9 AM                                            4

3              Microbial Genetics Lecture                                                                          7

Homework #1 due on 9/13/19 at 9 AM

Ch. 7 Reading Quiz due on 9/13/19 at 9 AM

Extra Credit assignment #3 (5 points) due on 9/13/19 at 9 AM

4              Genetic Engineering                                                                                       8

Review for test #1                                                                                           1, 3, 4, 7, 8

Test #1 (Chapters 1, 3, 4 and 7) available at the RRC or HLC testing center from Friday 9/20/2019 through Thursday 9/26/19

Microbial Nutrition and Growth                                                                                 6

Ch. 6 Reading Quiz due 9/20/19 at 9 AM

5              Microbial Metabolism                                                                                   5

Homework #2 due on 9/27/19 at 9 AM


WEEK    LECTURE TOPIC                                                                                                 CHAPTER

6              Review for EXAM II                                                                                         5- 6

Test #2 (Chapters 5 and 6) available at the RRC or HLC testing center from Friday 10/4/19 through Thursday 10/10/19

Control of Microorganisms in the Environment                                  9

Extra credit assignment #4 due on 10/4/19 at 9 AM (5 points)

                Homework #3 due on 10/4/19 at 9 AM

Ch. 9 Reading Quiz due on 10/4/19 at 9 AM

7              Control of Microorganisms in the Body                                                 10

                Case Study #1 due on 10/11/19 at 9 AM

Ch. 10 Reading Quiz due on 10/11/19 at 9 AM

Survey of Bacteria                                                                                           11     

8              Fungi                                                                                                                     12

Eukaryotic Parasites                                                                                        12

Case Study #2 due on 10/18/19 at 9 AM

`Ch. 12 Reading Quiz due on 10/18/19 at 9 AM

9              Acellular Agents (Viruses and Prions)                                                      13

Extra credit assignment #5 due on 10/25/19 at 9 AM (5 points)

Ch. 13 Reading Quiz due on 10/25/19 at 9 AM

Review for EXAM III                                                                                        9-13







WEEK    LECTURE TOPIC                                                                                                 CHAPTER

10           Innate Immunity                                                                                              15

Homework #4 due on 11/1/19 at 9 AM

Ch. 15 Reading Quiz due on 11/1/19 at 9 AM                                       15

Adaptive Immunity                                                                                         16

Ch. 16 Reading Quiz due on 11/1/19 at 9 AM

Test #3 (Chapters 9-13) available at the RRC or HLC testing center from Friday 11/1/19 through Thursday 11/7/19

11           Immunizations and Serology                                                                       17        

Ch. 17 Reading Quiz due on 11/8/19 at 9 AM

Case Study #3 due on 11/8/19 at 9 AM

12           Determinants of Health and Disease, Epidemiology                         14

Ch. 14 Reading Quiz due on 11/15/19 at 9 AM

Review for EXAM IV                                                                                       14-17

Test #4 (Chapters 14-17) available at the RRC testing center (RRC 2205) from Friday 11/15/19 through Monday 11/25/19

13           Diseases of the Skin                                                                                        19

Diseases of the Respiratory System                                                         22

Homework #5 due on 11/22/19 at 9 AM

Case Study #4 due on 11/22/19 at 9 AM        

Extra Credit #6 due on 11/22/19 at 9 AM (5 points)                                 

Receive Test #5 (take home test) from instructor during lab on 11/20/19  DUE: 5/11/19 at the end of lab            

14           Diseases of Cardiovascular and Circulatory System                           21                      

Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems                          24

Case Study #5 due on 11/28/19 at 9 AM        


WEEK    LECTURE TOPIC                                                                                                 CHAPTER

15           Diseases of the Digestive System                                                             23

Diseases of the Nervous System and Eyes                                            20

Case Study #6 due on 5/6/19 at 9 AM       

Homework #6 due on 5/6/19 at 9 AM        

Optional Comprehensive Exam available at the RRC and HLC testing centers from Friday 12/6/19 through Thursday 12/12/19

16           Test #5 due at the end of lab (5/11/19)!

Note: Material from Test #5 is NOT included in the Optional Comprehensive Exam.

Schedule Changes May Occur. Announcements will be made in class or on Blackboard

It is your responsibility to get these changes if you miss class!

Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives

Student Learning Outcomes:

Course-Level: Specific skills and competencies are expected of students who successfully complete this course, including the ability to:

  • Explain microbiological processes in detail and on an appropriate level, including cell theory, metabolism, genetics, control, and interactions between humans and microbes, including the disease process and defense/immune responses
  • Correctly perform microbiologic lab skills such as use of a Bunsen burner, use of the microscope, aseptic technique, streaking for isolation, establishing pure cultures, and isolation and determination of unknowns using differential stains and differential/selective media
  • Display a habit of safe lab practices including aseptic technique and disposal of biohazard waste


General Education: As a Core Curriculum course, students completing this course will demonstrate competence in:

  • Critical Thinking - Gathering, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating and applying information. 
  • Interpersonal Skills - Interacting collaboratively to achieve common goals.
  • Quantitative and Empirical Reasoning - Applying mathematical, logical and scientific principles and methods.
  • Written, Oral and Visual Communication - Communicating effectively, adapting to purpose, structure, audience, and medium.


Departmental Common Course Objectives: The ACC Biology Department has specified the content for this course in the departmental common course objectives. The departmental objectives are located at


Learning Objectives: In the BIOL 2420 lecture, students will learn to (students will be tested in all objectives):

1. Discuss the germ theory of disease and its development.

2. Discuss aseptic procedures for the preparation of media and materials for the culturing and growth of microbes.

3. Enumerate and differentiate among the different groups of organisms included for study in microbiology.

4. Discuss and distinguish between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell types.

5. Discuss energy acquisition and utilization by microbes and the function of enzymes in cellular activities.

6. Discuss microbial metabolism, including anabolic pathways and glycolytic, fermentative and respiratory catabolic pathways.

7. Discuss fundamental nucleic acid chemistry regarding the principle of complementarity, DNA replication, the genetic code, protein synthesis, metabolic regulation, and cellular reproduction.

8. Discuss microbial genetics including, but not restricted to sexual versus asexual means of reproduction, and transformation, transduction and conjugation in bacteria.

9. Discuss methods utilized in biotechnology as applied to microbes, including the role of microbes and biotechnology in industrial microbiology, the pharmaceutical and food industries, and systematic and diagnostic microbiology.

10. Discuss symbiotic relationships, including commensal, mutualistic, and parasitic relationships among hosts and microbes.

11. Discuss disease processes, the cellular structures, metabolic and genetic activities, and biological and chemical agents employed by microbes in colonizing, infecting, invading, and causing diseases in hosts.

12. Discuss the processes, both nonspecific and specific, employed by hosts in resisting the onslaught of infectious diseases.

a.         Describe the types and functions of immune cells, including lymphocytes, phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages), natural killer cells, mast cells, and antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages).

b.         Describe the roles, origin, maturation and migration of B and T lymphocytes.

c.         Compare the innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) immune mechanisms.

d.         Describe the innate mechanisms:

            1. inflammation

            2. interferon

            3. the complement system

            4. external defenses (physical and chemical barriers)

e.         Describe the adaptive immune mechanisms:

            1. antibody-mediated response

            2. primary and secondary responses

            3. cell mediated response

f.          Compare active and passive immunity

g.         Explain how the immune system develops tolerance.

h.         Describe the genetic basis for class I and class II self antigens (MHC molecules) and their role in the immune response.

13. Discuss the principles and methods of diagnosing diseases, identifying disease-causing agents, and tracking and enumerating diseases around the world.

14. Discuss the signs, symptoms, etiology, course, prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment for the most common infectious diseases of all organ systems of the human.

Laboratory Learning Objectives: In the microbiology laboratory, students will learn to:

1. Recognize and comply with the “Biology Laboratory Safety Policies for Students, Staff and Faculty.”

2. Recognize and comply with generally accepted rules for microbiology laboratory health and

safety, clean-up, decontamination, disinfection, and disposal of hazardous materials.

3. Utilize aseptic technique for all laboratory work.

4. Satisfactorily perform aseptic transfers; streaking for isolated colonies; growth of pure cultures; identification of colony characteristics; simple and differential staining; serologic, metabolic and chemical tests for bacteria and other appropriate microorganisms.

5. Observe growth characteristics and environmental factors affecting growth of microbes.

6. Observe and differentiate among eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms using both wet mounts of living organisms and stained smears of organisms of both cell types with light microscopy.

7. Observe and differentiate among bacterial cell types and arrangements using simple and differentially stained smears. 

8. Satisfactorily identify unknown microorganisms, using procedures learned in the course.

9. Discuss the cell theory and its development.