Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology


Fall 2012
10/22/2012 - 12/16/2012

Course Information

Section 044
TTh 15:00 - 17:40
CYP1 1107
Alfred Maldonado

Office Hours

No office hours have been entered for this term

SYLLABUS CYP FAll 2012 soci 1301 3:00-5:40pm



Alfred C. Maldonado, Ph.D., Professor

Tuesday, October 23, 2012—Thursday, December 13, 2012.

Synonym: 10347.  Section: 044.                                                                                       

Class period: 3:00pm--5:40pm.  Room: 1107.


Student Email: ttp://

Home phone: 512-712-5150.  Office phone: 512-568-7642.                                          


Log-In: Blackboard:          

Text: John Macionis, Sociology, 14th Edition.

Online Syllabi:


All CYPFall 2012 Sociology 1301 courses taught by this Professor:

Tues. & Thurs.        SOCI 1301    9:00am--10:20am                   Classroom 2230.   16 weeks.

Tues. & Thurs.        SOCI 1301    10:30pm--11:50pm                 Classroom 1118.  16 weeks.

Tues. & Thurs.        SOCI 1301    3:00pm--5:40pm                     Classroom 1107.  08 weeks: October 23, 2012--December 13, 2012.


CYP FALL 2012 OFFICE HOURS.  Building 1000.  Simon’s Café

Tuesday and Thursday:....8:20am--8:50am; 11:55am--2:45pm .

SOCIOLOGY 1301: Introduction to Sociology (3-3-0).  Theoretical perspectives and research pertaining to the scientific study of society, including social relationships of individuals within institutional processes.  The course covers Institutional Processes (culture, structure, family, marriage, cohabitation, politics, economics, religion, education, sexuality, demography, social change); and Structured Inequality (classes, wealth, poverty, gender, sexism, ethnicity, race, racism, aging, global inequality, neocolonialism).  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

OBJECTIVES.  Sociological Research & Theoretical Perspectives in Socio-Historical ContextsMastery of Sociological concepts and perspectives.  Sociological processes are explained in the contexts of U. S. and world historical processes.  Emphasis on the Sociological perspective, scientific method, critical thinking skills, and classroom discussions.  Sociological research is based on the scientific method, and not on non-scientific, common sense, or junk-science perspectives.  Goals for Student. Retention, academic success, high self-esteem, ease in seeking Professor’s assistance, investing time in studying with him, engaging in class discussions, and mastery in using the Sociological imagination.  Mastery of the Scientific Method (Critical Thinking Skills).  Application of critical analyses beyond “common sense,” “conventional wisdom,” and generalizing to institutional processes based on personal experience, myths, stereotypes, reductionism, junk-science.


REQUIREMENTS. All changes to this syllabus will be communicated to students via ACC email.

STUDENT SKILLS.  In order succeed in this course, the following skills must be utilized by students.

CollegE Behavior & demeanor.              

Critical-thinking-reasoning skills.          

Reading comprehension-interpretat

Effective study skills.                

Regular & on-time attendance.            

Effective & accurate class notes

Positive working relationship with the professor.                                     

Utilization of point opportunities.


LECTURES.  Lectures are not just summaries of text materials, but are comprised of selected topics discussed in detail, including materials not in the text.  Exams contain text and lecture materials.   ACC EMAIL.  Students must use their ACC email accounts for all email communications.   BLACKBOARD.  The syllabus, power point files, and students’ scores are posted to Blackboard.  Scores area always tentative, subject to final revisions at semester’s end. 

ON-TIME & REGULAR ATTENDANCE.  ATTENDANCE, TARDIES, CHRONIC TARDINESS.  Four recorded tardies will result in a student being dropped, regardless of student’s grade at the time.  If a student is not in class by the start of class, the student is tardy and may be assessed a formal tardy without point penalty or a student may be penalized 20 points per tardy; and/or may be dropped from the class on the fifth recorded tardy (chronic tardiness: more than four recorded tardies).  The class clock or my watch is the official time.  There are no excused tardies.  ATTENDANCE ISSUES.  Students have 36 hours to contest any issues of attendance, points lost or gained, or class-roll signing.  After 36 hours, mistaken or not, the original entry stands, especially if I cannot associate your face with your name and I do not know if you were there.  INITIALING CLASS ROLLS.  Students must initial class rolls when distributed in class. 

FOUR 120-POINT EXAMS (480 Points).  No Scantrons required.  Exams cover text and lecture materials.  

THREE REQUIRED QUIZZES (210 Points).  No Scantrons neededSeventy points per required quiz25 minute quizzesQuiz chapters are not discussed in class; outside reading; students may earn study points.  All questions from text.


UNEXCUSED ABSENCES (“CUTS”) PERMITTED.  THREE.  Students who earn a C on an Exam have one cut removed; a B on an exam removes up to two cuts, and an A removes up to three cuts.

EXCUSED ABSENCES.  Two kinds: Medical excuses (up to 3) and Verified Death of an immediate relative (up to 2 per semester).  Legal-related absences, “close friends” funerals, weddings, trips, divorces, etc. are not excused absences.   MEDICAL ABSENCES.  This course is not designed for students who are planning to be absent on a regular or long term basis.  Medical receiptmust be on health providers’ letterhead.  Up to three medical excuses per student are permitted.  Medical appointments for a student’s child(ren) are considered part of the student’s (parent’s) medical absences.   DEATH OF “CLOSE” RELATIVE.  Defined: wife, husband, parents, brothers, sisters, grandparents, great-grandparents, your children, your stepchildren, first cousins, in-laws, uncles, nieces, nephews, aunts, or grandchildren.  Verification by being named as a surviving relative in a memorial program, obituary, or other document   Friends, roommates, and boy/girlfriends are not considered relatives.

EXAM AND REQUIRED QUIZ MAKE UPS.   Students with excused absences make up exams or required quizzes within one week of returning to class.  There are no excused absences for the Final Exam or any optional quizzes.   COURSE WITHDRAWAL DEADLINE: Monday, December 10, 2012.  You may withdraw from a class any time before the deadline.  Dropping out of class or notifying the instructor do not constitute an authorized withdrawal.  Students who fail to officially withdraw are at risk of receiving an F on their transcript.  If the fifth cut occurs after December 10th, the student remains on the class roll and cannot be dropped, but such a student is not permitted to earn any more points and will receive the grade s/he had as of December 10, 2012. 


NON-ACCEPTABLE STUDENT BEHAVIORS & PENALTIESA college-level learning environment will be maintained at all times.  Penalty point deductions will be from any available extra-credit points.  Students with a deficit of extra-credit points will have to first earn and “pay” back the deficit points, before they can earn any new extra credit points.

  • ZERO TOLERANCEUNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIORNo second chanceA student using abusive, intimidating, and/or threatening language and/or behavior toward anyone in class will be immediately dropped, after only one such incident, regardless of grade at the time.
  • Students repeatedly engaging in discussions among themselves, while I try to lecture.  First penalty: 20 points deducted from each student.  Second time: 30 point penalty each and students no longer sit anywhere near each other.  Third time: student(s) will dropped from course.    Napping/sleeping in class.  Reading other classes’ materials.  Listening to music.  Playing games with other students.  Texting.  Working on other courses’ assignments in my class.  20 points per incident.    Playing games, tic-tac-toe, computer games, texting, or any other electronic activities.  There is no valid reason for any student to be surfing the internet at any time during this class.  Laptops are solely for note taking.  20 points penalty and the student longer brings a computer to class.    Cell phone rings.  20 point penalty at my discretion.    Children are never permitted in class.

SYLLABUS ACKNOWLEDGMENT FORM.  Students are required to sign a form, attesting they have read the syllabus, understand all its contents, will abide by the rules, and will seek clarification from me in the first two weeks of the semester for any content they do not understand.  The student’s continued enrollment in this course is also an acknowledgment that s/he has read the syllabus, understands it, and agrees to comply with all the requirements.

OSD:  “Each ACC campus offers support services for students with documented physical or psychological disabilities.  Students with disabilities must request reasonable accommodations through the Office for Students with Disabilities on the campus where they expect to take the majority of their classes.  Students are encouraged to do this three weeks before the start of the semester.”  (ACC Student

Handbook, 2009-2010).  Students are responsible for scheduling Exams and Quizzes at the OSD office.  An electronic copy of each Exam and/or Quiz will be sent to the OSD office.

SCHOLASTIC DISHONESTY & PLAGIARISMActs prohibited by the college for which discipline may be administered include scholastic dishonesty, including but not limited to cheating on an exam or quiz, plagiarizing, and unauthorized collaboration with another in preparing outside work.  Academic work submitted by students should be the result of their thought, research, or self-expression.  Academic work is defined as, but not limited to, tests, quizzes, whether taken electronically or on paper; projects, either individual or group; classroom presentations, and homework.” (ACC Student Handbook, 2011-2012). 

FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION.  Each student is strongly encouraged to participate in class discussions.  In any classroom environment that includes discussion and critical thinking, there are bound to be many different viewpoints.  These differences and their expressions enhance the learning experience and create an atmosphere where students and instructors alike will be encouraged to think and learn.  On sensitive, emotional, controversial, volatile topics and issues, students sometimes disagree not only with each other but with the instructor.  It is a requirement in this class that faculty and students will respect the views of others when expressed in classroom discussions.

ADDING, DROPPING, OR WITHDRAWING FROM A COURSE(S).  Adding, dropping, or withdrawing from a course may affect financial aid, veterans’ benefits, international student status, or academic standing.  Please see an advisor or counselor before making changes.  Adding or dropping a course (schedule changes):  Students may add or drop a course before open registration ends or during the session’s official schedule change (add/drops) period. See the course schedule   for information on add/drops procedures, deadlines, and tuition refunds.  Withdrawing from a course:  Students may withdraw from one or more courses prior to the withdrawal deadline by submitting a request form to Admissions and Records.  Withdrawal deadlines are published in the academic calendar.  Withdrawal courses appear on the student’s record with a grade of W.  Until a student is officially withdrawn, the student remains on the class roll and may receive a grade of F for the course.  Students are responsible for understanding the impact withdrawing from a course may have on their financial aid, veterans’ benefits, international student status, and academic standing.  Students are urged to consult with their advisor before making schedule changes.  Per state law, students enrolling for the first time in fall 2007 or later at any Texas college or university may not withdraw (receive a W) from more than six courses during their undergraduate college career. Some exemptions for good cause could allow a student to withdraw from a course without having it count toward this limit. Students are encouraged to carefully select courses; contact an advisor or counselor for assistance.


GRADES: FOUR EXAMS (480), THREE REQUIRED QUIZZES (210):  690 POINTS, plus any extra credit points.

IMPORTANT: Losing and Recovering Extra Credit Points.  When a student fails an Exam, the student loses 20 extra credit points.  Students who earn a D lose 10 extra credit points.  The points will be deducted from any available extra-credit points.  If a student loses more points than she has, she incurs a deficit.  Extra credit point deficits have to be made up before new extra credit points can be credited to the student.  To recover 10 lost points from an exam’s D grade will require at least a C on an ensuing Exam.  To recover 20 lost points from one failed Exam will require least a B on an ensuing Exam, but a follow-up grade of C will restore 10 of the 20 points.  Substantial improvements over time (from D’s and F’s to at least consistent C’s) may also help students recover lost extra credit points.

Course Grades:  A = 621--690 Points (90%-100%)         B = 552--620 Points (80%-89%)        C = 483--551 Points (70%79%)            D = 414--482 Points (60%-69%)           F = 413 or fewer Points (59%).

120 Point Exam & Grades:  A = 108--120.           B = 96—106. C = 84—94.     D = 72—82.     F = 70 or fewer.


328 POTENTIAL EXTRA-CREDIT POINTS. IMPORTANT.  Earning extra credit points is a privilege, not a right.  Extra credit points may be forfeited for unacceptable excessive absenteeism, student behavior and/or consistently low or failing grades. 

Extra credit opportunities require additional time and effort beyond just attending class.  If you allocated only enough time to attend class, you will not be in a position to earn most extra credit points.

1.  EXAM REWARDS. (up to 48 points).  Twelve extra credit pointseach time a student earns an A on an exam.  Six extra credit points for students who earn a B on an Exam.

2.  ATTENDANCE REWARDS. (up to 60 points).  Nounexcused absences (cuts) = 60 points.  One unexcused absence = 40 points. Two unexcused absences = 20 points.  You can miss (“cut”) class, but it has to be an excused absence.

3.  REMOVING UNEXCUSED ABSENCES THROUGH EXAM GRADES.  A grade of C removes one unexcused absence (cut).  A B-grade on an exam removes up to two cuts.  An A on an Exam removes up to three cuts.  Attendance extra credit points would be restored if applicable.  A student can remove a maximum of three cuts per semester through Exam grades.

4.  STUDY POINTS.(60 points).  Students may study with me for all Exams and Quizzes.  The student must be prepared to spend at least 30 minutes with me and to ask enough questions to indicate that s/he has read the materials; is not just putting in an appearance; and is not just “listening.”  The maximum points per study session are eight points.  I will not answer “fishing” questions: do we have to know this or that?  What do we have to know about….?  Do we have to know any statistics?  What should I focus on in the chapter?   What do we have to know for this exam?  Students who earn grades of D or F on any exam must be there only to study, not to visit or tell stories.  Students may earn more than 60 points, so long as they earn at least C’s on all exams.

5.  VCP (Verbal Class Participation). (up to 30 points).  The student consistently speaks up in class and engages in productive discussions and asks relevant questions to help me move the discussions forward in an academically challenging fashion.  

6.  CRITERIA-BASED OPTIONAL QUIZ. (up to 70 points).  No excused absences or make ups on optional quizzes.  Students who earned at least one F on a prior exam must score at least36 points to keep their points.  Students who earned at least a D on all exams may keep all the points they earn.  7. FINAL EXAM EXEMPTION. (minimum of 621 points).  Once a student earns enough points for an A, s/he is exempt from further testing, but attendance/on time requirements will always be in effect.  If the student’s score drops below the 621 minimum points for an A because of cuts or other penalties, the exemption is forfeited, but the student may take any remaining Exam and/or Quiz.  8.  PROFESSOR-AWARDED POINTS & EXEMPTIONS FROM SYLLABUS REQUIREMENTS.  Determined individually based on excellent academic performance during the entire semester. 

9.  LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION CRITERIA.  Letters will be granted only after the semester is over and the request must be made at least six weeks before the student’s submission deadline.  The student must provide all the necessary information for institutional forms.  The student must have a cumulative GPA of at least 3.75.  The student must have demonstrated consistently superior academic performance; earned an A in the course; consistently studied with me; incurred no more than one cut; and never made below a B on an Exam.  S/he must have a high probability of reflecting favorably on my professional judgment and ACC.  The student must demonstrate critical thinking skills, class engagement, maturity, intellectual curiosity, scientific, and Sociological excellence. 


COMPREHENSIVE COURSE CALENDAR: Tuesday, October 23, 2012—Tuesday, December 13, 2012.

It is always possible that one or more of these assignments may need to be rescheduled or revised because of weather, illness, etc.  If so, I will notify the students viaACC email to reschedule the assignment(s). 

Tuesday, October 23, 2012.  INTRODUCTION & ORIENTATION.   The never-ending, incredible, wholesome, and patriotic benefits of taking this course!!

Tuesday, October 23, 2012—Thursday, November 1, 2012.   Read Chapters One and 10 for upcoming Exam One.  Lectures over these two chapters.

Tuesday, October 30, 2012.  REQUIRED QUIZ ONE.  70 points.   25 questions.   25 Minutes.   Chapter 4: Society.  Lectures after the Quiz.

Thursday, November 1, 2012.  EXAM ONE.  120 points.  Chapter One: Sociological Perspective.   Chapter 10:  Social Stratification.  No Scantron needed.  Lectures after the exam.

Thursday, November 1, 2012—Thursday, November 15, 2012.  Read Chapters 11 and 13 for upcoming Exam Two.  Lectures over these two chapters.

Tuesday, November 8 2012.  REQUIRED QUIZ TWO.  70 points.  25 questions.  25 minutes.      Chapter 22: Population, Urbanization and Environment.  Lectures after this Quiz.

Thursday, November 15, 2012.  EXAM TWO.  120 points.    Chapter 11: U. S. Social Classes.    Chapter 13: Gender Stratification.  Lectures after this Exam.

Thursday, November 15, 2012---Thursday, November 29, 2012.  Read Chapters 14 and 18 for Exam Three.  Lectures over these two chapters.

Tuesday, November 20, 2012.  REQUIRED QUIZ THREE.  70 points.  35 questions.  25 Minutes.    Chapter 16: The Economy and Work.  Lectures after this exam.

Thursday, November 29, 2012.  EXAM THREE.  120 points.  Chapter 14: Race & Ethnicity.    Chapter 18: The Family.  Lectures after this Exam.

Thursday, November 8, 2012—Tuesday, December 11, 2012.  Read Chapters 12 and 21 for the upcoming Final Exam (Exam 4).  Lectures covering Chapters 12 and 21.

Thursday, November 22, 2012—Sunday, November 25, 2012.  THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY.

Tuesday, December 4, 2012.  Optional Quiz.  70 points.  35 questions.  25 minutes.  There are no excused absences and no make ups for optional quizzes.    Chapter 17: Politics and Government.  Students who earned An F on any exam must score at least 36 points to keep their points.  Students who earned a D or above on all Exams keep all the points they earn on this quiz. 

Monday, December 10, 2012.  Withdrawal Deadline: Last day for a student to withdraw from a course with a W (Withdrawal).

Thursday, December 13, 2012.  EXAM FOUR (FINAL EXAM).  120 points.  Chapter 21: Health and Medicine.   Chapter 12: Global Stratification.  No excused absences for final exam.

Course Requirements


See the Course Syllabus for details.



See the Course Syllabus for details.

Course Subjects



Chapter One, The Sociological Perspective Objectives:  Define sociology and examine the components of the sociological perspective.

   1. Explain the importance of a global perspective for sociology.


   2. Examine how social marginality and social crisis encourage people to use the sociological perspective.


   3. Identify and describe four benefits of using the sociological perspective.


   4. Identify and discuss three social changes especially important to the development of sociology.


   5. Identify and describe the three-stage historical development of sociology as a science.


   6. Discuss the importance of theory in sociology.


   7. Summarize the main assumptions of the three major theoretical approaches in sociology.


Chapter 10, Social Stratification Objectives:


1)   Define and state the four basic principles of social stratification.


2)   Distinguish between caste and class systems.


3.)  Discuss how the mix of caste and meritocracy in class systems operates in the United Kingdom and in Japan.


4)   Explain the role of ideology in social stratification.


Chapter 11, Social Classes in the United States Objectives:


1)   Identify and describe the dimensions of social class in the United States.


2)   Recognize the continuing importance of ascriptive factors such as ancestry, gender, race and ethnicity, and religion in determining an individual’s class placement in the United States.


3)   Characterize the four social classes in the United States.


4)   Examine ways in which social standing is linked to health, values, politics, and family life.


5)   Distinguish between intergenerational and intragenerational social mobility.


6)   Discuss trends in social mobility in the United States.


7)   Distinguish between absolute and relative poverty.


8)   Discuss the extent of poverty in the United States.


9)   Provide a profile of the poor in the United States.


10)   Debate the issue of whether poverty is a result of individual or social factors.


Chapter 16: The Economy and Work Objectives


Define the economy.


1)      Identify and discuss ways that the Industrial Revolution changed the economy.


2)      Trace the changes that occurred as the economy moved from an industrial to a postindustrial model.


3)      Identify and define three sectors of a modern economy.


4)      Compare and contrast the two economic models of capitalism and socialism.


5)      Distinguish between socialism and communism.


6)      Examine the relative advantages of capitalism and socialism, especially with regard to productivity and the distribution of income.


7)      Discuss some of the recent trends in the composition of the labor force.


8)      Be familiar with the major changes occurring in the U.S. labor market, especially the decline of agriculture and the shift toward the service sector.


9)      Distinguish between the primary and secondary labor markets.


10)    Understand some of the reasons why labor unions are presently in decline.


11)    Identify the characteristics of a profession and discuss the contemporary trend toward professionalization.


12)    Examine the severity of unemployment.


13)    Discuss the segments of contributors to the underground economy.


14) Identify ways that computers are changing the workplace.


14)    Recognize the extent of economic concentration in the contemporary United States.


15)    Explain how large corporations are linked, including conglomerate formation and interlocking directorates.


16)    Define the concepts of monopoly and oligopoly and discuss the extent to which large corporations are no longer engaged in competitive economic activity.


17)    Examine the global scale on which megacorporations currently operate.


Chapter 13, Gender Stratification Objectives:


1)   Define stratification.


2)   Make global comparisons with regard to “masculinity” and “femininity.”


3)   Define the concepts of patriarchy, matriarchy, sexism, and institutionalized sexism.


4)   Explain the concept of gender roles.


5)   Discuss the role of the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media in the socialization of gender roles.


6)   Define gender stratification.


7)   Examine ways in which women experience inequality and discrimination in occupations, economics, education, politics, and the military.


8) Discuss the special problems of minority women.


9)   Be familiar with some of the ways in which women are victimized through violence, sexual harassment, and pornography.


10)Compare and contrast the structural-functional and social-conflict approaches with regard to gender.


11)List five general principles of feminism.


12) Identify and describe three types of feminism and discuss reasons why many people resist feminist change.



Chapter 14, Racial and Ethnic Stratification Objectives:


1)   Define race, ethnicity, and minority.


2)   Define the concepts of prejudice and discrimination and discuss how they are related to each other.


3)   Explain how stereotypes contribute to prejudiced thinking.


4)   Outline four theories of prejudice.


5)   Identify and describe four patterns of minority-majority interaction.


6)   Summarize the social histories of the major U.S. minority groups.


7)   Present arguments for and against affirmative action.


Chapter 3, Culture Objectives:


   1. Provide the sociological definitions of culture, nonmaterial and material culture, and culture shock.


   1. Explain how culture replaces instinct in human beings.


   2. Identify the major components of all cultures.


   3. Understand the role of language in the transmission of culture.


   4. Understand the implications of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis regarding cross-cultural communication.


   5. List Robin Williams’s ten central American values.


   6. Distinguish between mores and folkways.


   7. Distinguish between real and ideal culture.


   8. Discuss the role of material culture and technology in our society.


   9. Distinguish between high culture and popular culture.


  10. Examine the diversity of subcultures and countercultures found in complex modern societies.


  11. Summarize the contemporary debate over multiculturalism.


  12. Discuss the concepts of cultural integration and cultural lag.


  13. Identify and discuss three causes of cultural change.


  14. Compare and contrast ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.


  15. Discuss three factors influencing the emergence of a global culture and three limitations to the global culture thesis.


  16. Summarize the three theoretical analyses of culture: structural-functional, social-conflict, and sociobiological.


  17. Identify how culture both constrains and enhances human freedom.


Chapter 4: Culture Objectives

1)      Define society.


2)      Explain how Lenski uses technological development as a criterion for classifying societies at different levels of evolutionary development and identify five types of societies according to their technology.


3)      Summarize how technology shapes societies at different stages of sociological evolution.


4)      Explain the central role of social conflict in Marx’s theory.


5)      Outline Karl Marx’s model of society.


6)      Explain Marx’s analysis of conflict throughout history.


7)      Cite Marx’s ways in which capitalism alienates workers.


8)      Explain Weber’s notion of ideal types.


9)      Examine how Weber used the concept of the rationalization of society as a means of understanding and interpreting historical change.


10)    Identify seven characteristics of a rational social organization.


11)    Define Durkheim’s concepts of structure by function and personality.


12)    Explain how, according to Durkheim, an expansion in a society’s division of labor promotes a shift from mechanical to organic solidarity.


13)    Identify major similarities and differences among the analyses of society developed by Lenski, Marx, Weber, and Durkheim.



Chapter 18: Families Objectives:


1)   Define kinship, marriage, and the family.


2)   Distinguish between nuclear and extended families.


3)   Distinguish between endogamy and exogamy.


4)   Describe the two basic types of marriages (monogamous and polygamous) and the two types of polygamy (polygyny and polyandry).


5)   Identify and discuss three residential patterns of marriage.


6)   Distinguish among bilateral, patrilineal, and matrilineal descent.


7)   Summarize how the structural-functional, social-conflict, symbolic-interactionist, and social-exchange approaches direct our attention to different aspects of the sociology of the family.


8)   Identify the social functions of the family.


9)   Identify how the family perpetuates social inequality.


10)  Identify and describe the four stages of family life.


11 ) Discuss how variables of class, race, and gender influence family patterns.


12) Identify causes for the high U.S. divorce rate.


13) Identify risk factors for divorce.


14) Discuss the scope of the problem of family violence.


15) Examine alternative family forms currently gaining popularity in the United States.


16) Realize why some of the new reproductive technologies are causing controversy.


Chapter 21, Health and Medicine Objectives:

1) Explain why health is as much a social issue as a biological one.


2)   Examine how health has improved as a consequence of the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions.


3)   Examine the health problems currently facing the world’s poorer nations.


4)   Define social epidemiology and summarize what is known about health in the United States.


5)   Be generally familiar with the health risks associated with cigarette smoking, eating disorders, and sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS.


6)   Debate the ethical issues surrounding death, including when a person is dead, the right to die, and euthanasia.


7)   Trace the rise of scientific medicine and discuss the challenge presently raised to traditional health care by advocates of holistic medicine.


8)   Summarize ways in which various socialist and capitalist societies supply health care to their citizenry.


9)   Understand the implications and consequences of the U.S. direct-fee system of paying for health care, and also the nursing shortage.


10) Explain the three basic ways by which U.S. citizens commonly pay for health care.


11) Compare and contrast how each of the three theoretical approaches direct attention to different aspects of the health care institution.


12) Describe Parsons’ conception of the sick role.


13) Examine how illness and health care are socially constructed.


14) Identify and discuss three major criticisms of the U.S. health care system advanced by social-conflict theorists.


Chapter 8, Sexuality and Society Objectives:


1) Define sex.


2) Define sex from a biological perspective.


3) Define sex from a cultural perspective.


4) Summarize the profound changes in sexual attitudes and practices during the last century, noting in particular the sexual revolution and the sexual counter-revolution.


5) Summarize research findings on sexual behavior in the United States with regard to premarital sex, sex among adults, and extramarital sex.


6) Identify and define four sexual orientations along the sexual orientation continuum.


7) Present the two arguments on how people come to have a sexual orientation.


8) Discuss the role of the gay rights movement in moving the public attitude toward homosexuality toward greater acceptance.


9) Discuss the issues surrounding the high rate of teenage pregnancy.


10) Identify the objections to pornography.


11) Examine types of prostitution and the extent of prostitution around the world.


12) Discuss the range of sexual violence and abuse in the United States.


13) Examine human sexuality by applying sociology’s three major theoretical approaches.


Chapter 2, Sociological Research Methods (Investigations) Objectives:


   1. Name the two requirements of sociological investigation.


   2. Discuss the advantages of the scientific approach to knowing and examine how scientific evidence challenges our common sense.


   3. Define concepts, variables, and measurement.


   4. Distinguish between the concepts of reliability and validity.


   5. Distinguish between independent and dependent variables.


   6. Understand the distinction between a cause-and-effect relationship and a correlational relationship.


   7. Examine the ideal of objectivity in sociological research and discuss ways that researchers can be as objective as possible.


   8. Identify limitations of scientific sociology.


   9. Summarize the three methodical approaches in sociology: scientific, interpretive, and critical.


  10. Identify five ways in which gender-based issues may distort sociological research.


  11. List ethical guidelines to follow in sociological research.


  12. Summarize the four major methods by which sociologists conduct research and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each method.


  13. Understand the basic logic of experimental research.


  14. Outline 10 steps in the process of carrying out sociological investigation.


Chapter 20, Education, Objectives:


1)   Distinguish between education and schooling.


2)   Examine why education has become increasingly important as the world has industrialized.


3)   Compare and contrast schooling in Britain, Japan, India, and the United States.


4)   Summarize how the structural-functional and social-conflict approaches direct our attention toward different aspects of the U.S. institution of education.


5)   Identify the major social functions of schooling.


6)   Define the concept of the hidden curriculum.


7)   Explain how standardized testing and tracking have historically worked to the disadvantage of the poor and minorities.


81)   Compare and contrast the different quality of education provided by various American private and public schools.


9)   Summarize the main findings of the Coleman Report.


10) Identify factors that lead to differential access to higher education.


11)Define credentialism.


12)Outline the major problems in U.S. schooling, including discipline and violence, student passivity, dropping out, declining academic achievement, and grade inflation.


Chapter 22: Population, Urbanization, and the Environment Objectives:


1)  Define the three basic elements of demographic analysis: fertility, mortality, and migration.


2)   Explain how demographers calculate a population’s natural growth rate.


3)   Explain how demographers study population composition using the sex ratio and the age-sex pyramid.


4)   Trace historic trends in the size and growth rate of the world’s population.


5)   Identify strengths and limitations of Malthusian theory.


6)   Explain the theory of the demographic transition.


7)   Examine social factors that underlie contemporary population trends in both the industrialized and the nonindustrialized societies.


Chapter 12: Global Stratification Objectives:

1) Distinguish between the high-income countries, the middle-income countries, and the low-income countries.


2)   Examine the severity of global poverty.


3)   Examine the special problems of women and children living in poverty in the world’s less- and least-developed nations.


4) Identify correlates of global poverty.


5) Compare and contrast modernization theory and dependency theory.


6)   Identify and describe Rostow’s stages of modernization.


7)   Discuss Wallerstein’s model of the capitalist world economy.


Chapter 15: The Aging and Elderly Chapter Objectives


Discuss the causes and consequences of the “graying” of the U.S. population.


1)      Define gerontology.


2)      Describe the biological and psychological changes that accompany aging, as well as the role of cultural factors in determining how aging is defined in any given society.


3)      Examine how age stratification varies according to a society’s level of technological development.


4)      Identify and describe four personality types identified by Neugarten in their responses to the aging process.


5)      Examine the transitions and challenges of aging, including social isolation, retirement, poverty, caregiving, and elder abuse.


6)      Define ageism.


7)      Discuss the extent to which the elderly can be analyzed as a minority group.


8)      Compare and contrast three theoretical paradigms on the sociology of aging.


9)      Compare and contrast historical patterns of death with the modern separation of life and death.


10)    Discuss ethical issues surrounding death.


Chapter 17: Politics and Government

I. Power and Authority.

A.   Politicsis the social institution that distributes power, sets a society’s agenda, and makes decisions.

B.   According to Max Weber, power is the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others. Power is wielded by government, which is defined as a formal organization that directs the political life of a society.

C.   Authorityis power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive.

1.    Traditional authority is power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns. Its importance declines as societies industrialize.

2.    Rational-legal authority is power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations.

3.    Charismatic authority is power legitimized through extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience.

a.  Because it is inherently unstable, charismatic authority must undergo a process of routinization of charisma in which it is transformed into a combination of traditional and rational-legal authority.

II. Politics in Global Perspective.

A.   As the political institution expanded, the political state emerged.

1.    The earliest political states were city-states.

2.    The modern world is characterized by nation-states.

B.   Monarchy is a type of political system that transfers power from generation to generation in a single family. Earlier monarchies were absolute. Modern ones are generally constitutional, with the monarch being little more than a symbolic head of state.

C.   Democracy is a political system in which power is exercised by the people as a whole. Democracies are generally representative rather than fully participatory. Affluent industrial societies tend to be democracies. Modern democracies are characterized by extensive bureaucracies and economic inequalities.

1.    Democracy and freedom: capitalist and socialist approaches.

a.  Capitalist societies define freedom as political liberty.

b. Socialist societies see freedom as satisfaction of basic economic needs.

2.    WINDOW ON THE WORLD—Global Map 17-1 (p. 397): Political Freedom in Global Perspective. In 2010, 87 of the world’s 195 nations, containing 43 percent of all people, were politically “free.”

D.   Authoritarianism is a political system that denies popular participation in government.

1.    THINKING GLOBALLY BOX (p. 398) —“Soft Authoritarianism” or Planned Prosperity? A Report from Singapore. The box surveys Singapore strong government presence.

E.    Totalitarianismis a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people’s lives.

F.    The rise of multinational corporations, the information revolution, and the growth of nongovernmental organizations all suggest that a global political system may be emerging.


III. Politics in the United States.

A.   Our cultural emphasis on individualism implies the desirability of a small government, but in recent decades the U.S. government has expanded into a vast welfare state, a range of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population.

B.   The political spectrum.

1.    Economic issues. Economic liberals expect government to maintain a healthy economy, whereas economic conservatives counter that government intervention inhibits economic productivity.

2.    Social issues. The Republican Party is more conservative on both economic and social issues, while the Democratic Party takes a more liberal stand.

3.    Class, race, and gender. Most people do not hold the same positions on economic and social issues.

4.    Party identification in the United States is weak.

C.   Special-interest groups are political alliances of people interested in some economic or social issue. Many employ lobbyists.

1.      Political action committees are organizations formed by a special-interest group, independent of political parties, to pursue political aims by raising and spending money.

2.      SEEING SOCIOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE BOX (p. 403)—The Rural-Urban Divide:  Election 2008.  There appears to be a cultural gap between liberal, urban, Democratic America, and rural, small-town, Republican America.

D.   Voter apathy is widespread in the United States. Gender, age, and ethnicity are all correlated with likelihood of voting. Conservatives attribute apathy to indifference to      politics; liberals attribute it to alienation from politics.

1.    SEEING OURSELVES—National Map 17-1 (p. 403): Election 2008: The Rural-Urban Divide.  Barack Obama won the 2008 presidential election with 53 percent of the total popular vote, but he received a majority of the vote in only about one-fourth of the nation’s counties. Obama and other Democrats did well in more densely populated urban areas, while John McCain and other Republicans did well in less populated rural areas.            

E.    Forty-eight of the fifty states have laws that bar felons from voting.  Four states bar       many or all ex-felons from ever voting again.  Such laws make a difference in U.S. elections.

IV. Theories of Power in Society.

A.   The pluralist model is an analysis of politics that views power as dispersed among many competing interest groups. It is compatible with the structural-functional approach.

1.    Pluralists claim that politics is an arena of negotiation and that it has many sources.

B.   The power-elite model is an analysis of politics that views power as concentrated among the rich. It is linked with the social-conflict approach.

1.    C. Wright Mills developed this view.

C. The Marxist political-economy model is an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society's economic system.

D.   Critical review: Research by Nelson Polsby supports the pluralist model; research by Robert Lynd and Helen Lynd as well as Floyd Hunter supports the power-elite model; however, in the end, how one views this country's political system is as much a matter of political values as scientific fact. See the Apply Theory table on page 405, which summarizes the political models.


V. Power beyond the Rules.

A.   Political revolution is the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another. Most revolutions share the following patterns:

1.    Rising expectations.

2.    Unresponsive government.

3.    Radical leadership by intellectuals.

4.    Establishing a new legitimacy.

B.   Terrorism constitutes random acts of violence or the threat of such violence used by an individual or group as a political strategy. Terrorism has four distinguishing characteristics:

1.    Terrorists try to paint violence as a legitimate political tactic.

2.    Terrorism is used not just by groups but also by governments against their own people.

3.    Democratic societies reject terrorism in principle, but they are especially      vulnerable to terrorists because they afford extensive civil liberties to their people and have less extensive police networks.  The 9/11 attacks illustrate this point.

4.    Terrorism is always a matter of definition.


VI. War and Peace.

      Waris organized armed conflict among the people of various societies, directed by their


A.   The causes of war:

1.    Perceived threats.

2.    Social problems.

3.    Political objectives.

4.    Moral objectives.

5.    The absence of alternatives.

B. Social class and the military:

                  1.   One recent study concluded that the military has few young people who are rich and also few who are very poor.  It is easy to understand why the armed forces are trying to boost their numbers by offering financial incentives.

C. Is terrorism a new kind of war?

1.    The identity of terrorist individuals and organizations may not be known.

2.    The terrorist’s goals may be unclear.

3.    Terrorism is an asymmetrical conflict. 

D.   The costs and causes of militarism:

1.    Defense spending diverts resources from the struggle for survival by millions of poor people throughout the world.

2.    The military-industrial complex is the close association among the federal government, the military, and defense industries.

E.  Nuclear weapons and war.

1.    Nuclear proliferation is the acquisition of nuclear weapons by more and more nations.

            F.   Mass media and war.

 1. Pursuing peace. Here are the most recent approaches to peace:

a.  Deterrence.

b. High-technology defense.

c.  Diplomacy and disarmament.

d. Resolving underlying conflict.

G.  SOCIOLOGY IN FOCUS BOX (pp. 410-411)—Uprisings Across the Middle East: An End to the Islamic “Democracy Gap”? Even after revolutionary changes in the region during 2011, the road to democracy for Islamic-majority nations is likely to be long. Invite your students to use the blog on MySocLab.


VII. Politics: Looking Ahead.

               A. Several problems and trends:

1.    Inconsistency between our democratic ideals and low public participation in politics.

2.    The Information Revolution is changing politics.

3.    Analysts envision a broader range of political systems, linking government to economic production in various ways.

4.   Many countries have large stockpiles of nuclear weapons.

5.   There is the danger of war in many parts of the world.


VIII. Seeing Sociology in Everyday Lifephoto essay (pp. 388-389). Use this essay to spark discussion of ways individuals can make a difference in U.S. politics.


IX. Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Lifeessay in MySocLab (see p. 413, question 3). This student empowerment essay explains how students can use material presented in this chapter to more effectively pursue their life goals.


X. Making the Grade(pp. 414-415). This detailed chapter outline is useful as a set of lecture notes or to guide chapter review.


Chapter Objectives


1)    Define politics.

2)    Distinguish between power and authority.

3)    Identify and define Max Weber’s three ideal types of authority.

4)    Describe the four basic types of contemporary political systems: monarchy, democracy, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism.

5)    Discuss the extent to which a global political system is beginning to emerge.


6)    Summarize attitudes and party identification that form the political spectrum.


7)    Understand the role of special-interest groups and political action committees in the U.S. political system.


8)    Discuss the problem of voter apathy and interpretations of this phenomenon.


9)    Compare and contrast three models of power in the United States.


10)  Characterize successful political revolutions.


11)  Outline four distinguishing characteristics of terrorism.


12)  Name five factors that promote war.


13)  Explain how the military-industrial complex fueled the arms race during the Cold War.


14)  Examine the continuing dangers associated with nuclear proliferation.


15)  Summarize four recent approaches to peace.


16)  Outline several problems and trends of political systems in the twenty-first century.

3)   Which of the three different models of the U.S. political system do you believe is correct?


4)   Of the four approaches to peace, what do you think is the best way to reduce the danger of war?


5)   What are your positions along the political spectrum with regard to economic and social issues? What are some of the sociological factors which explain your style of political thinking?


6)   Do you think that the power of special-interest groups and PACs improves or corrupts the U.S. political system? How, if at all, would you control or restrict their power?


7)   Do you think that political apathy is due to indifference or alienation? Discuss.


8)   What are the problems which result from widespread political apathy? Are there any positive consequences of such apathy?


9)   Outline what you regard as some of the positive and negative consequences of the concentration of political power at the national level in the hands of a coherent power-elite or military-industrial complex.


10) In what way is the Information Revolution changing politics?




Chapter 22: Population, Urbanization, and Environment


I. Demography: The Study of Population.

   Demographyis the study of human population.

A.  Fertility is the incidence of childbearing in a society’s population.

1.   Fecundity refers to the maximum potential childbearing ability of the women of a society. It is sharply reduced in practice by cultural norms, finances, and personal choice.

2.   Demographers measure fertility using the crude birth rate, or the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population.

B.  Mortality is the incidence of death in a society’s population.

1.   Demographers measure mortality using the crude death rate, or the number of deaths in a given year for every thousand people in a population.

2.   The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths among infants under one year of age for every thousand live births in a given year.

3.   Life expectancy is the average life span of a society’s population.

C.  Migration is the movement of people into and out of a specified territory.

1.   It may be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary migration may be explained by push and pull factors.

2.   Movement into a territory is termed immigrationand is measured by the in-migration rate,the number of people entering an area for every thousand people in the population.

3.   Movement out of a territory is termed emigration and is measured by theout-migration rate, the number of people leaving an area for every thousand people in the population.

4.   The net migration rate is the difference between the in-migration rate and the out-migration rate.

5.   SEEING OURSELVES MAP (p. 514)—National Map 22-1: Population Change across the United States. In general, population is moving from the heartland of the United States toward the coasts.

D.  The population growth rate is computed by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate. It is relatively low in the industrialized nations and quite high in the poor countries.

1.   WINDOW ON THE WORLD (p. 515)—Global Map 22–1: Population Growth in Global Perspective. The richest countries of the world have growth rates below 1 percent. In global perspective, we see that a society’s standard of living is closely related to its rate of population growth: population is rising fastest in the world regions that can least afford to support more people.

2.   Doubling time is another way of expressing a society’s growth rate.

E.  Population composition.

1.   The sex ratio is the number of males for every hundred females in a given population. Sex ratios are usually below 100, because, on average, women outlive men.

2.   An age-sex pyramid is a graphic representation of the age and sex of a population.

3. THINKING ABOUT DIVERSITY: RACE, CLASS, AND GENDER BOX (p. 519)—Where Are the Girls? China’s One-Child Policy: This box reviews the history and effects of the one-child policy in China.


II. History and Theory of Population Growth.

     The growth rate began to increase around 1750 and is presently extremely rapid.

A.  Malthusian theory.

1.   Malthus believed that population increased geometrically, while food could only increase arithmetically, leading to catastrophic starvation.

2.   Critical review. Malthus’ predictions were not supported in the short run, but they may have some value in describing future demographic trends.

B.  Demographic transition theory is a thesis linking population patterns to a society’s level of technological development. It entails four stages:

1.   Stage 1, preindustrial: high birth rates, high death rates.

2.   Stage 2, onset of industrialization: high birth rates, low death rates.

3.   Stage 3, industrial economy: declining birth rates, low death rates.

4.   Stage 4, a postindustrial economy: low birth rates, steady death rates.

5.  Critical review. This approach suggests that technology holds the key to population control. It is compatible with modernization theory but not with dependency theory.

C.  Global population today: A brief survey.

1.   The low-growth industrial societies of the North are now close to zero population growth, the level of reproduction that maintains population at a steady state.

2.   The high-growth less-developed societies of the South are still in Stage 2 of the demographic transition.


III. Urbanization: The Growth of Cities.

      Urbanization is the concentration of population into cities.

A.  The evolution of cities.

1.   The emergence of cities led to specialization and higher living standards. The first city—Jericho, which dates back some 10,000 years—was home to only around 600 people.

2.   Preindustrial European cities date back some 5,000 years to the Greeks and Romans.

3.   By 1750, a second urban revolution was transforming European cities into an industrial model.


B.   The growth of U.S. cities.

1.   Colonial settlement, 1565–1800.

2.   Urban expansion, 1800–1860.

3.   The metropolitan era, 1860–1950.

a. A metropolis is a large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area.

4.       Urban decentralization, 1950–present.

C.  Suburbs and urban decline.

1.   Suburbs are urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city. They began to expand in the late nineteenth century and exploded after WWII. Industrial and commercial activities soon followed population outward.

2.   This trend led to massive problems in the old central cities.

D. Postindustrial sunbelt cities. These cities came of age after urban decentralization began. Sunbelt cities have pushed their boundaries outward, along with the population flow.

E.  Megalopolis: The Regional City.

1.   The U.S. census recognizes 362 metropolitan statistical areas.

2.   The biggest MSAs are termed consolidated metropolitan statistical areas.

3.   A megalopolis is a vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs.

F.  Edge cities. Urban decentralization has created edge cities, business centers some distance from the old downtowns. Edge cities have no clear physical boundaries.

   G. The rural rebound.  Since 1900, rural areas have been gaining population. 


IV. Urbanism as a Way of Life.

A.  Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.

1.   Gemeinschaft is a type of social organization by which people are bound closely together by kinship and tradition.

2.   Gesellschaft is a type of social organization by which people have weak social ties and considerable self-interest.

3.   Tönnies saw the development of modern urban society as a shift from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft.

B.  Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and organic solidarity. Durkheim described traditional, rural life as mechanical solidarity, social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values. Organic solidarity refers to social bonds based on specialization and interdependence. Durkheim optimistically pointed to a new kind of solidarity. Where societies had been built on likeness, Durkheim now saw social life based on differences.

C.  Georg Simmel: The blasé urbanite. To prevent being overwhelmed by all the city stimulation, urbanites develop a blasé attitude, tuning out much of what goes on around them.

D.  The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth.

1.   Robert Park was the founder of the Chicago School of urban sociology.

2.   Louis Wirth sees a large population, dense settlement, and social diversity as the keys to understanding urban society. These traits tend to make human relations impersonal, superficial and transitory, as well as relatively tolerant.

3.   Critical review. Research offers only weak support for Wirth’s thesis. He ignores how urbanism varies according to class, race, and gender.

4.   THINKING ABOUT DIVERSITY:  RACE, CLASS, AND GENDER BOX (p. 525)—Minorities Have Become a Majority in the Largest U.S. Cities.  According to the 2000 census, minorities—Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians—are now a majority of the population of the 100 largest U.S. cities.

E.  Urban ecology is the study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities.

1.   This approach helps explain why cities are located where they are.

2.   It also generates theories concerning the physical design of cities.

a. Ernest Burgess’s concentric zone theory.

b. Homer Hoyt’s wedge-shaped sector theory.

c. Harris and Ullman’s focus on multicentered cities.

3.       Social area analysis studies how neighborhoods differ in terms of family patterns, social class, and race or ethnicity.

4.       Work by Berry and Rees ties all of these strands together.

F. Urban political economy is influenced by the thinking of Karl Marx, which sees the city as a natural organism developing according to an internal logic.

1.       Critical review. This approach helps explain why many U.S. cities are in crisis, but both urban ecology and urban political economy are not easily applied to cities in other societies or in different eras.


V. Urbanization in Poor Nations.

A.  A third urban revolution is taking place because many poor nations have entered the high-growth Stage 2 of demographic transition theory.

B.  Cities do offer more opportunities than rural areas, but they provide no quick fix for the massive problems of escalating population and grinding poverty.


VI. Environment and Society.

A.  Ecology is the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment.

B.  The natural environment consists of the earth’s surface and atmosphere, including various living organisms and the air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain life.

C.  The global dimension.

1.   Any study of the natural environment must necessarily be global in scope because the planet constitutes a single ecosystem, the system composed of the interaction of all living organisms and their natural environment.

D.  Technology and the environmental deficit.

1.   Complex technologies generally pose more threats to the global environment than did the simple technology of preindustrial societies.

2.   The world is now facing an environmental deficit, profound and negative harm to the natural environment caused by humanity's focus on short-term material affluence. This concept implies three important ideas:

a. The state of the environment is a social issue.

b. Environmental damage is often unintended.

c. Much environmental harm is reversible.

E. Culture: Growth and limits.

1.   The logic of growth thesis is a widely accepted cultural value which suggests that growth is inherently good and that we can solve any problems that might arise as a result of unrestrained expansion.

2.   The limits to growth thesis holds that humanity must implement policies to control the growth of population, material production, and the use of resources in order to avoid environmental collapse.

F.   Solid waste: The disposable society.

1.       SEEING SOCIOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE BOX (p. 530)—Why Grandma Macionis Had No Trash.

2.   Landfills pose several threats to the natural environment.

3.   Recycling, or reusing resources we would otherwise discard, is one solution.

G. Water and air.

1.       Water supply is problematic in many parts of the world.

H. A special problem is acid rain, rain that is made acidic by air pollution and destroys plant and animal life.

1.   Some countries do not have an adequate supply of water.

2.   Polluted water is an increasingly serious concern as well.

3.   A deterioration of air quality was one of the unanticipated consequences of the development of industrial technology.

4.   Rain forestsare regions of dense forestation, most of which circle the globe close to the equator.

5.   Global warming is apparently occurring as a result of the greenhouse effect, a rise in the earth’s average temperature due to increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting in part from the decline of the rain forests.

6.   The shrinking of the rain forests reduces the earth’s biodiversity.

I.   Environmental racism is the pattern by which environmental hazards are greatest in proximity to poor people, particularly poor minorities. In part, it is a deliberate strategy by factory owners and powerful officials.


VII. Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World.

A.  We need to develop an ecologically sustainable culture, a way of life that meets the needs of the present generation without threatening the environmental legacy of future generations.

B.  This calls for three basic strategies:

1.       We must bring world population growth under control.

2.   We must conserve finite resources.

3.   We must reduce waste.

C.   SOCIOLOGY IN FOCUS BOX (p. 533)—Apocalypse: Will People Overwhelm the Planet? The box presents projections for population increase.


VIII. Seeing Sociology in Everyday Lifephoto essay (pp. 534-535). Use this essay to spark discussion of why the state of the environment reflects the way we organize our society.


IX. Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Lifeessay in MySocLab (see p. 535, question 3). This student empowerment essay explains how students can use material presented in this chapter to more effectively pursue their life goals.


X. Making the Grade(pp. 536-537). This detailed chapter outline is useful as a set of lecture notes or to guide chapter review.


Chapter Objectives


1) Define the three basic elements of demographic analysis: fertility, mortality, and migration.


2)   Explain how demographers calculate a population’s natural growth rate.


3)   Explain how demographers study population composition using the sex ratio and the age-sex pyramid.


4)   Trace historic trends in the size and growth rate of the world’s population.


5)    Identify strengths and limitations of Malthusian theory.


6)   Explain the theory of the demographic transition.


7)   Examine social factors that underlie contemporary population trends in both the industrialized and the nonindustrialized societies.


8)   Trace the development of cities around the world and in the United States.


9)   Discuss results of urban decentralization.


10) Explain the general approach to urban analysis favored by urban ecologists.


11) Explain the general approach to urban analysis favored by urban political economists.


12) Characterize contemporary urbanization in the world's poor societies.


13) Define the concepts of ecology, the natural environment, the ecosystem and the environmental deficit.


14) Be aware of how technological change, population growth, and cultural patterns collectively impact the environment.


15) Explain the logic of growth and the limits-to-growth thesis.


16) Discuss the major environmental issues confronting societies around the world today, including solid waste disposal, water supply and pollution, air pollution, the depletion of rain forests, global warming, and declining biodiversity.


Essay Topics


1)   Make use of the concepts of push and pull factors to analyze the rapid decentralization of U.S. metropolitan regions that has occurred in recent decades.


2)   Is the possibility that the U.S. and other developed nations may fall below the zero population growth point one that ought to concern us?  Why?


3)   How did changes in the status of women in the developed countries affect their demographic histories?


4)   Outline and evaluate some of the steps that nations in the developing world might take to reduce their rate of population growth.


5)   Is it possible to revitalize our central cities, or is the trend toward suburban dispersal so strong that the central cities are beyond hope? How would you attempt to reinvigorate the urban core?


6)   What do Simmel and Wirth see as the principal advantages and disadvantages of living in cities? Do their analyses correspond with your own observations and experiences with urban life? Discuss.


7)   Do you think that we will always be able to find new technological solutions to any ecological problems which arise in the future?


8)   How can the logic of growth be modified in order to reduce strain on the environment?


9)   How effectively does your community recycle? How might people be convinced to recycle more of their waste?


10) How can citizens work most effectively to promote a cleaner environment?



Chapter 23: Collective Behavior and Social Movements

I. Studying Collective Behavior.

   Collective behavioris defined as activity involving a large number of people, often spontaneous and sometimes controversial.

A.   Studying collective behavior.

1.    The study of collective behavior is difficult to study for three reasons:

a.  Collective behavior is diverse.

b. Collective behavior is hard to explain.

c.  Much collective behavior is transitory.

2.    All collective behavior involves the action of a collectivity, a large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms.

a.  There are two types of collectivities, localized and dispersed.

b. Collectivities differ from social groups in three ways: limited social interaction; unclear social boundaries; weak and unconventional norms.


II. Localized Collectivities: Crowds.

A.   Crowds are temporary gatherings of people who share a common focus of attention and whose members influence one another. There are five types of crowds:

1.    Casual.

2.    Conventional.

3.    Expressive.

4.    Acting.

5.    Protest.

B.    Mobs and riots.

1.    A mob is a highly emotional crowd that pursues some violent or destructive goal. Lynch mobs are the best-known example.

2.    A riot is a social eruption that is highly emotional, violent and undirected.

C.    Crowds, mobs, and social change.

1.    Ordinary people typically gain power only by acting collectively.

2.    Because crowds have been able to effect social change, they pose a threat to elitist’s power.

D.   Explaining crowd behavior.

1.    Contagion theoryargues that crowds exert a hypnotic influence on their members, turning them into irrational automatons.

a.  Critical review. This theory is not entirely incorrect, but research suggests that it overemphasizes the irrationality of crowd behavior.

2.    Convergence theory views crowds as assemblages of like-minded individuals who are drawn together because of their common attitudes and interests.

a.  Critical review. This theory is reasonable, but ignores the ability of the crowd to intensify sentiments.

3.    Emergent-norm theorysuggests that distinctive patterns of behavior develop within the crowd as it interacts.

a.  Critical review. This theory stresses the rationality of crowd behavior and accommodates the fact that not all crowd participants behave in the same way.


III. Dispersed Collectivities: Mass Behavior.

Mass behavior refers to collective behavior among people dispersed over a wide geographical area.

A.   Rumor and gossip.

1.    Rumor is unsubstantiated information spread informally, often by word of mouth. Rumors have three essential characteristics:

a.  Rumor thrives in a climate of ambiguity.

b. Rumor is unstable.

c.  Rumor is difficult to stop.

2.    SEEING SOCIOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE BOX (p. 545)—The Rumor Mill: Paul Is Dead! The box reviews the 1969 “Paul Is Dead” hoax.

3.    Gossip is rumor about people’s personal affairs.

B.    Public opinion and propaganda.

1.    Public opinion, widespread attitudes about controversial issues, is another example of highly dispersed collective behavior.

2.    It is often influenced by propaganda, information presented with the intention of shaping public opinion.

C.    Fashion and fads.

1.    Fashion is a social pattern favored for a time by a large number of people.

2.    A fad is an unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically.

D.   Panic and mass hysteria.

1.    Panic is a form of localized collective behavior by which people react to a threat or other stimulus with irrational, frantic, and often self-destructive behavior.

2.    Mass hysteria or moral panic is a form of dispersed collective behavior in which people respond to a real or imagined event with irrational, frantic, and often self-destructive behavior.

E.  Disasters

                  1.   A disaster is an event, generally unexpected, that causes extensive harm to people and damage to property.  There are three types of disasters.

                        a.   Floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, forest fires are all examples of natural 


b.    A second type is the technological disaster, which is widely regarded as an accident, but is more accurately a failure to control technology (e.g., an oil spill).

                        c.   A third type is the intentional disaster, in which one or more organized

                        groups deliberately harms others (e.g., terrorist attacks).

                  2.   Kai Erikson has reached three major conclusions about the social consequences of disasters.

                        a.   Disasters cause serious damage to human community.

                        b.   Social damage is more serious when an event involves some toxic

                        substance, which is common with technological disasters.

c.       The social damage is most serious when the disaster is caused by the

      actions of other people.

                  3. THINKING GLOBALLY BOX (p. 548): A Never-Ending Atomic Disaster. Kai Erikson’s research shows the social side of disasters.


IV. Social Movements.

      Social movementsare organized activities that encourage or discourage social change.

A.   Social movements may be characterized in terms of the breadth and depth of the change they are seeking. Combining these variables results in four types of social movements:

1.    Alternative social movements,which pursue limited change in certain individuals.

2.    Redemptive social movements, which promote radical change in certain individuals.

3.    Reformative social movements, which seek moderate changes in the whole society.

4.    Revolutionary social movements, which promote sweeping transformation of an entire society.

B.   Claims making is the process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue.

C.    Explaining social movements.

1.    Deprivation theory holds that social movements arise among people who feel deprived, compared to others.Relative deprivation, then, is a perceived disadvantage arising from some specific comparison.

a.  Critical review. Since most people experience some deprivation most of the time, this approach does not adequately explain why movements only arise some of the time. It also has a tendency to be circular and to focus more attention on the setting in which a movement emerges than on the movement itself.

2.    Mass-society theory, developed by William Kornhauser,traces the origin of social movements to rootless individuals seeking a sense of membership and purpose.

a.  Critical review. The concept of a mass society is difficult to operationalize. In addition, this approach minimizes the legitimate political discontent which underlies many movements. Empirical research sometimes supports and sometimes challenges mass-society theory.

3.    Structural-strain theory, developed by Neil Smelser, argues that six factors promote the development of a social movement:

a.  Structural conduciveness.

b. Structural strain.

c.  Growth and spread of an explanation.

d. Precipitating factors.

e.  Mobilization for action.

f.  Lack of social control.

g.  Critical review. This theory recognizes the complexity of the factors underlying movement development and is distinctly social in focus, but it is circular and incomplete.

4.    Resource-mobilization theory focuses on the resources available to a movement.

                                       a.   Critical review. This approach ignores the fact that even without extensive resources, groups of poor people who are committed and well organized can sponsor effective social movements. It also may overstate the extent to which powerful people (with resources) are willing to challenge the status quo.

5.    Cultural theory developed from the recognition by sociologists that social movements depend on cultural symbols.

a.  Critical review. This approach reminds us that not just material resources but also cultural symbols form the foundation of social movements.  However, powerful symbols support the status quo.

6. The Marxist-based political economy approach views social movements arising within capitalist societies because the capitalist economic system fails to meet the needs of the majority of people. 

        a. Critical review.  A strength of this approach is its macro-level                                               orientation, but scholars disagree as to whether capitalism is incapable of                            meeting people’s needs.

7.    New social movements theory notes the importance of quality-of-life issues to recent movements.

a.    Critical review. This approach may overstate the differences between “traditional” and “new” social movements.

8. The Summing Up table (p. 554) reviews all the theories of social movements.

D.   SEEING OURSELVES MAP (p. 552)—National Map 23-1: Virtual March: Political Mobilization across the United States. Support for came from urban areas in coastal regions of the United States.

E.    Gender and social movements: Because of patriarchy, men have generally been more active than women in social movements.

F.    Stages of social movements.

1.          Emergence.

2.    Coalescence.

3.    Bureaucratization.

4.    Decline, which may occur for four reasons:

a.  The movement may have succeeded.

b. It may succumb to poor organization.

c.  It may be co-opted.

d. It may be repressed.

G.   Social movements and social change.

1.    Social movements exist to encourage or to resist social change.

2.    Social change is both the cause and the consequence of social movements.

3.    SOCIOLOGY IN FOCUS BOX (p. 557)—Are You Willing to Take a Stand?  This box explores how likely students are to get involved in social movements.


V. Social Movements: Looking Ahead

A.   While social movements have historically brought about change, new issues ensure that social movements will continue to shape our way of life.

B.    The scope of social change is likely to increase for three reasons:

1.    Historically excluded categories of people are gaining a greater political voice.

2.    The technology of the Information Revolution has drawn the world closer together.

3.    Social movements are now uniting people throughout the entire world.


VI. Seeing Sociology in Everyday Lifephoto essay (pp. 506-507). Use this essay to spark discussion of the differences between local, national, and global social movements.


VII. Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Lifeessay in MySocLab (see p. 559, question 3). This student empowerment essay explains how students can use material presented in this chapter to more effectively pursue their life goals.


VIII. Making the Grade(pp.560-561). This detailed chapter outline is useful as a set of lecture notes or to guide chapter review.


Chapter Objectives


1)    Define collective behavior and social movements.


2)    Identify reasons why collective behavior is difficult to study.


3)    Distinguish between collectivities and groups.


4)    Describe the main types of collective behavior, including crowds, mobs, riots, rumor, public opinion, panic, mass hysteria, fashion, and fads.


5)    Compare and contrast the main points of contagion, convergence, and emergent-norm theories of crowd behavior.


6)    Identify and describe four types of social movements.


7)    Compare and contrast the main points of deprivation, mass-society, structural-strain, resource-mobilization, cultural social movements, and new social movement theories to explain social movements.


8)    Identify and discuss four stages in the life cycle of social movements.


Essay Topics


1)    What are some examples of riot behavior in U.S. history? What social injustices were the riots a reaction against?


2)    What are some examples of propaganda you have experienced? Did it sway you toward some viewpoint?


3)    What theory do you think best explains social movements? Why?


4)    Research one social movement and describe the stages in the life of that movement.


5)    What is the subjective experience of being a part of a large expressive or acting crowd like? Draw on your personal experiences.


6)    How well does the discussion in the text explain the spread of some rumor with which you are personally familiar? Discuss.


7)    Early sociologists tended to analyze collective behavior as irrational. From the position of the individual participant, would you regard participation in a riot as necessarily highly irrational? How about involvement in a rumor? In a panic? In a fad?


9)    Demonstrate your understanding of Smelser’s structural-strain theory by using it to analyze the large-scale rioting in South Central Los Angeles following the Rodney King verdict.


10)  Is it possible for a social movement to be a permanent feature of a society, or must it inevitably decline? Discuss.




Chapter 24: Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies


I. What Is Social Change?

    Social change is the transformation of culture and social institutions over time. It has four

    general characteristics:

A.   Social change happens all the time.

B.   Social change is sometimes intentional but often unplanned.

C.   Social change is controversial.

D.   Some changes matter more than others.


II. Causes of Social Change.

A.   There are three important sources of cultural change:

1.    Invention.

2.    Discovery.

3.    Diffusion.

B.    Tension and conflict within a society can also produce change.

C.    As Max Weber demonstrated in his analysis of the origins of capitalism, ideas may promote social change.

D.   Demographic factors such as population growth, shifts in the composition of a population, or migration also influence social change.

1.    SEEING OURSELVES (p. 567)—National Map 24-1: Who Stays Put? Residential Stability across the United States.  Overall, only about 16 percent of U.S. residents have not moved during the last 30 years. Residential stability is increasing due to the weak economy as people lose value in homes and see less economic opportunity elsewhere.


III. Modernity.

      Modernityconsists of social patterns linked to industrialization. Modernization is the 

      process of social change initiated by industrialization.

A.                   Peter Berger notes four major characteristics of modernization:

1.    The decline of small, traditional communities.

2.    The expansion of personal choice.

3.    Increasing social diversity.

4.    Future orientation and growing awareness of time.

B.    Ferdinand Tönnies interpreted modernization as a loss of community, or the decline of Gemeinschaft and the rise of Gesellschaft.

1.    Critical review. This approach synthesizes the various dimensions of change, but says little about cause and effect and may be seen as romanticizing traditional societies.

C.                   Emile Durkheim stressed that modernization involved an increased division of labor (specialized economic activity, and a shift from mechanical to organic solidarity).

1.    Critical review. Anomie does seem to be a problem in modern societies, but shared values and norms have by no means disappeared in modern societies.

D.   Max Weber analyzed modernization as the replacement of tradition with rationality.

1.    Critical review. Conflict theorists would argue that the real problem is social inequality, not rational bureaucracy.

E.    Karl Marx analyzed modernization as the ascendancy of industrial capitalism. He anticipated a socialist revolution that would lead to an egalitarian society.

1.    Critical review. Marx underestimated the significance of bureaucracy in shaping all modern societies, capitalist or socialist.

F: SEEING SOCIOLOGY IN EVERYDAY LIFE BOX (pp. 570-571)—Tradition and Modernity: The History of Jeans. The box uses the history of jeans to show that the distinction between tradition and modernity is not as sharp as we sometimes think.

G. Use the Summing Up table (p. 572) to guide a review of many dimensions of social change.


IV. Theories of Modernity.

A.   Structural-functional theory: Modernity as mass society. A mass society is a society in which industry and an expanding bureaucracy have eroded traditional social ties. This occurs for two principal reasons:

1.    The scale of life has increased greatly in mass society.

2.    The state has also expanded tremendously. These two developments leave people with little control over their lives.

3.    Critical review. Mass-society theory romanticizes the past and pays little attention to problems of social inequality.

B.    Social-conflict theory: Modernity as class society. A class society is a capitalist society with pronounced social stratification. This approach sees social revolution as necessary to eradicate the social inequality that results from capitalism.  Despite pretensions of democracy in the United States, social inequality persists.

1.    Critical review. This approach overlooks the ways in which modern societies have become more egalitarian. It is unlikely that a centralized economy could cure the ills of modernity.

C.    Modernity and the individual.

1.    Mass society: Problems of identity.

a.  According to David Riesman, modernization brings on changes in social character, personality patterns common to members of a society.

b. Preindustrial societies are characterized by tradition-directedness, rigid personalities based on conformity to time-honored ways of living.

c.  Modern societies reflect other-directedness, or receptiveness to the latest trends and fashions, often expressed in the practice of imitating others.

2.    Class society: Problems of powerlessness.

a.  Herbert Marcuse condemns modern society as irrational because it fails to meet the needs of many people.

D.   Modernity and progress. Whether people see change as progress depends on their underlying values.

1. THINKING GLOBALLY BOX (pp. 576-577) —Does “Modernity” Mean “Progress”? The Case of Brazil’s Kaiapo and Georgia’s Gullah Community:  Change is not a simple path toward progress – the move toward modernity has both positive and negative consequences.

E.    Modernity: Global variation. While it is useful to contrast traditional and modern societies, the old and the new often coexist in unexpected ways.


V. Postmodernity.

     Postmodernityrefers to social patterns characteristic of postindustrial societies.

A.   Postmodernity encompasses the following five themes:

1.    Modernity has failed in important respects.

2.    The bright promise of “progress” is fading.

3.    Science no longer holds the answers.

4.    Cultural debates are intensifying.

5.    Social institutions are changing.

B.    Critical review. Modernity has raised living standards despite its failings. What are the alternatives?

C.    SOCIOLOGY IN FOCUS BOX (p. 579)—Tracking Change: Is Life in the United States Getting Better or Worse?  The evidence does not support any simple ideas about “progress over time.”  Social change has been, and probably will continue to be, a complex process that reflects different priorities. Encourage your students to join the blog on MySocLab.


VI. Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future.

A.   In global context, modernization theory argues that poverty is caused largely by traditionalism.

B.    Therefore, intervention in the economies of the poorer societies by the advanced nations is necessary.

C.    Dependency theorists respond that the economic reliance of poor societies on rich societies and on multinational corporations means that poorer societies are unlikely to be able to duplicate the experiences of the developed societies.

D.  CONTROVERSY & DEBATE BOX (pp. 580-581)—Personal Freedom and Social Responsibility: Can We Have It Both Ways?  An individual’s pursuit of self-interest must be balanced by a commitment to the larger community.


VII. Seeing Sociology in Everyday Lifephoto essay (pp. 582-583). Use this essay to spark discussion of traditional, modern, and postmodern societies.


VIII. Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Lifeessay in MySocLab (see p. 583, question 3). This student empowerment essay explains how students can use material presented in this chapter to more effectively pursue their life goals.


IX. Making the Grade(pp.584-585). This detailed chapter outline is useful as a set of lecture notes or to guide chapter review.


Chapter Objectives


1)    Define social change and describe characteristics of the process of social change.


2)    Examine causes of social change: culture, social structure, ideas, the natural environment, and demographics.


3)    Define modernity and identify four characteristics of modernization.


4)    Compare and contrast the theories of Tonnies, Durkheim, Weber, and Marx on modernization.

5)    Distinguish between mass and class analyses of modernity.


6)    Discuss David Riesman’s notion that modernization brings changes in  social character.


7)    Identify and describe five major themes of personality.


Essay Topics


1)    What do you see as the most positive social change in your lifetime? The most negative?


2)    Do you think that modernity has failed? Why or why not?


3)    Do you agree with the notion that postmodernity is a postmaterialist era, in which issues like social justice and environment and animal rights, command more and more public attention?


4)    Some groups, like the Amish, attempt to minimize the amount of social change that they experience. What are some strategies that might promote this goal? Is it possible to completely avoid all social change?


5)    How might a sociologist explain and interpret the fact that a steadily increasing amount of the social change that takes place in the world today is planned rather than accidental? What are some consequences of this trend?


6)    Do you think humanity will ever get to the point where the natural environment is no longer an important source of social change? 


7)    Do you think the changes that have resulted from modernization have improved or degraded human life? Defend your position.


8)    Do you think life in the United States is getting better or worse? Defend your position.


9)    Do you find mass or class theory more useful in trying to understand the problems of contemporary U.S. society? Discuss.


10)  Do you think that it is either desirable or possible for a single, relatively specific value system to be held by the sizable majority of the citizens of a modern mass society such as the U.S.? Discuss.

Student Learning Outcomes/Learning Objectives


See the Course Syllabus for details.